The two types of non freezing cold injuries are chillblain pernio and immersion foot trench foot although frostnip is a milder form of cold injury than chillblains it is discussed further under freezing cold injury as it is a form of mild frostbite chillblain this type of cold injury arises with exposure to temperatures that do not . Cold injuries usually do not occur even in extremely cold weather if the skin fingers toes ears and nose are well protected or are exposed only briefly the risk of cold injuries increases when the flow of blood is impeded when food intake is inadequate or when insufficient oxygen is available as occurs at high altitudes. Cwis is a term that can be used to describe both injuries that have a central effect such as hypothermia and ones that primarily affect the peripheries such as frostbite injuries affecting the peripheries can be subdivided into freezing cold injuries fcis and non freezing cold injuries nfcis 4. Non freezing cold injury non freezing cold injuries or nfci occur when tissue fluids do not freeze which usually at about 05c but local temperatures remain low for several hours or days it is likely to be much more common than currently believed because it often goes unreported and is often under diagnosed
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